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TEST LogoTEST Notifiable Disease

The DETECT (Decrease Epidemiological Threats with Environmental Controls and Testing), TEST (Take Epidemiological Specimens Today), and REPORT (Rules for Every Provider and Organization to Report on Time) Notifiable Diseases awareness campaign emphasizes different disease control actions needed to reduce the impact of Alabama's reportable diseases and create a robust notifiable disease system.

TEST Notifiable Disease involves taking a timely specimen, ordering the appropriate lab test, and utilizing the proper lab test method are all critical in determining if a patient has a notifiable disease.  Please see the Bureau of Clinical Laboratories (BCL) for more information about lab tests or if you have any lab questions.

Below are the Alabama Notifiable Diseases and the recommended method for testing each disease.  Please see REPORT Notifiable Disease for complete disease case definitions.

Disease

Organism

CDC Required Test Methods*

CDC Required Specimen Type*

Anthrax

Bacillus anthracis

Culture1, IHC, or PCR

Blood or sputum

Arboviral

Eastern Equine  Encephalitis, St Louis and West Nile Virus

Culture, ELISA1, IFA, or PCR

Blood, serum, or CSF

Babesiosis

Babesia spp.

Culture, ELISA, IFA, Microscopy1, or PCR

Blood

Botulism

Clostridium botulinum

Culture and identification1, or Mouse bioassay1

Stool

Brucellosis

Brucella spp.

Culture and identification1, ELISA1, IFA, or PCR

Blood

Campylobacteriosis

Campylobacter spp.

Culture2, ELISA, IFA, or PCR

Stool

Chancroid

Haemophilus ducreyi 

Culture1

Exudates

Chlamydia

Chlamydia trachomatis

DNA Probe1

Urine or Urethral, Endo-cervical,or Vaginal Swab

Cholera

Vibrio cholerae

Culture2, ELISA, or IFA

Stool

Cryptosporidiosis

Cryptosporidium

Microscopy1, DFA, or PCR 

Stool

Dengue

Dengue virus

Culture, ELISA, IHC, or PCR

Blood/serum

Diphtheria

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Culture and identification1

Throat or nasopharynx swab or cutaneous lesion

E. coli, shiga-toxin producing (STEC), including O157:H7

Shiga-toxin producing bacteria

Culture and identification1

Stool, blood, or urine

Ehrlichiosis/ Anaplasmosis

Ehrlichia chaffeensis

Culture, IFA, IHC, Microscopy or PCR

Blood

Encephalitis, viral

 

Culture, ELISA, IFA, or PCR

Blood, serum, and CSF

Giardiasis

Giardia lamblia

DFA, EIA, Microscopy1, or PCR

Stool

Gonorrhea 

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Culture, DNA Probe1, Microscopy, or PCR

Blood, genital discharge, or CSF

Hansen's Disease (Leprosy)

Mycobacterium leprae

Microscopy

Skin smears

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), post-diarrheal

N/A

Clinical Diagnosis

 N/A

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A

Serology

Serum

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B

Serology1 or PCR

Serum

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C

Serology, PCR, or RIBA

Serum

Hepatitis, other

Hepatitis virus

Serology or PCR

Serum

Haemophilus influenzae, invasive

Haemophilus influenzae

Culture and identification2

Blood, CSF, bronchoalveolar lavage, or conjunctival swab

Histoplasmosis

Histoplasma capsulatum

Microscopy or CF

Respiratory, tissue, body fluid, or CSF

HIV/AIDS

Human immunodeficiency virus

Culture, EIA + Westen blot, Genotype, IFA, Multispot, NAAT, PCR, or HIVp24

Blood and saliva

Influenza-associated pediatric death

Influenza virus

Culture, HAI, IFA,  IHC, or PCR1

Nasopharyngeal aspirate or wash, or throat swab

Lead

Lead

GFAS1

Blood

Legionellosis

Legionella pneumophila

Culture1, DFA, ELISA, IFA, IHC, or PCR

Blood, sputum, or bronchoalveolar lavage

Leptospirosis

Leptospira

Culture, DFA, or Serology

Blood, culture, or urine

Listeriosis

Listeria monocytogenes

Culture and identification1

Blood, CSF, or stool

Lyme disease

Borrelia burgdorferi 

Culture, EIA, IFA, or Serology

Blood

Malaria

Plasmodium spp.

Microscopyor PCR

Blood

Measles

Rubeola

Culture, Serology1, or PCR

Blood or serum

Meningococcal disease

Neisseria meningitidis

Culture2

Blood, CSF, bronchoalveolar lavage, or nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swab

Mumps

Mumps virus

Culture, Serology, or PCR

Blood

Novel influenza A virus

Influenza A virus

CDC only

Nasopharyngeal aspirate or wash, or throat swab

Pertussis

Bordetella pertussis

Culture1 or PCR1

Nasopharyngeal aspirate, wash, or swab

Plague

Yersinia pestis

Culture1 or Serology1

Aspirate from bubo, sputum or CSF

Poliomyelitis, paralytic

Polio virus

Clinical diagnosis

Stool, CSF, or oropharyngeal secretions

Poliovirus infection, nonparalytic

Polio virus

Culture

Stool, CSF, or oropharyngeal secretions

Psittacosis

Chlamydia psittaci

Culture, CF, ELISA, IFA, MIF, or PCR 

Sputum, blood, or postmortem tissue

Q Fever

Coxiella burnetii

ELISA, IFA, IHC, LA,  or PCR1

Blood or serum

Rabies, human and animal

Lyssavirus

Human2 , Animal- DFA1 or Culture

Human - Skin section, serum, CSF, or saliva.  Animal - Whole brain

Rubella

Rubella virus

Culture, PCR, or Serology

Blood or serum

Salmonellosis

Salmonella app.

Culture

Stool, blood, or urine

SARS-associated Coronavirus

SARS-CoV

Culture, ELISA, or PCR

Nasopharyngeal aspirate or stool

Shigellosis

Shigella spp.

Culture1

Stool, blood, or urine

Spotted Fever Rickettsioses

Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia parkeri

Culture, IFA, IHC, or PCR

Serum

Staph aureus, Vancomycin-intermediate (VISA)

Staphylococcus aureus

Culture

Blood, throat, or CSF

Staph aureus, Vancomycin-resistance (VRSA)

Staphylococcus aureus

Culture

Blood, throat, or CSF

Strep pneumoniae, invasive

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Culture2

Blood, CSF, or joint, pleural, or pericardial fluid

Smallpox

Variola virus

CDC Only

Vesicular or pustular fluid 

Syphilis

Treponema pallidum

ELISA or Microscopy

Blood or serum

Tetanus

Clostridium tetani

Clinical diagnosis

N/A

Toxic shock syndrome

Group A Streptococcus

Culture

Blood, CSF, or peritoneal

Trichinellosis

Trichinella

Serology

Blood and muscle biopsy

Tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Culture1, Microscopy1, or PCR

Respiratory, tissue, body fluid, or CSF

Tularemia

Francisella tularensis

Culture1 or Serology

Blood or serum

Typhoid fever

Salmonella typhi

Culture1 and PCR

Stool, blood, or urine

Varicella

Varicella virus

Culture, DFA, Serology, or PCR1

Lesion

Vibriosis

Non-cholera Vibrio spp.

Culture 2

Stool, wound or blood

Viral hemorrhagic fever

Crimean-Congo, Ebola, Lassa, Lujo, Marburg, and new world arenaviruses

Culture, ELISA, IHC, or PCR

Blood

Yellow fever

 Yellow fever virus

ELISA, Hybridization probes, PCR, or Serology

Blood

 

Key

* To confirm cases based on CDC case definitions

1 Test offered by Bureau of Clinical Laboratories (BCL)

2 Pure culture confirmation only by BCL

CF-complement fixation

Culture - Isolation

CIA - Chemiluminescent immunoassay 

CSF - Cerebrospinal fluid

DFA - Direct florescence assay

ELISA/EIA - Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay/enzyme immunoassay

EM- Electron microscopy

GFAS - Graphite furnace absorption 

HAI - Hemagglutination inhibition

IFA - Immunofluorescence assay

IHC - Immunohistochemistry

LA - Latex agglutination

MAT- Microagglutination test

MIF- Microimmunofluorescence

Microscopy

PCR - Polymerase chain reaction (nucleic acid amplification) 

RIBA - Recombinant immunoblot assay

RDT- Rapid diagnostic test, (i.e., antigen test or agglutination test)

Western blot - Immunoblot


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